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Posts Tagged ‘uddiyana’

The Risks and Benefits of Chest Breathing

Simon Breathing around the spine in unsupported headstand, and here doing exhalation retention with isolation of the rectus abdominis (nail)

Simon Borg-Olivier breathing around the spine in unsupported headstand, and here doing exhalation retention with isolation of the rectus abdominis (nauli)

Chest breathing can be extremely beneficially if done correctly but can also cause problems if done in a way that overstimulates the nervous system.

Many people teach and practice to inhale into the chest, and to exhale from the lower abdomen, but clinical research using Real Time Ultrasound (RTU) has shown that about 90% of the average adult population cannot really breathe into the chest without first inhibiting the functioning of the diaphragm by activating either the muscles of forced abdominal exhalation which firm the abdomen and draw the navel to the spine (co-activation of the internal and external abdominal oblique muscles, or ha-mula bandha), or by activating the anal constrictor muscles (ashvini mudra). Similarly, most people cannot exhale from the lower abdomen (and draw the lower abdominal muscles inwards) without inhibiting the diaphragm and immobilising the lumbar spine.

In this two minute video, Yoga Synergy Director and physiotherapist, Simon Borg-Olivier demonstrates breathing around the spine in such a way that the expansion due to inhalation is first seen and felt in the lower back, then the upper back, then the chest, and finally the abdomen. Then the contraction due to exhalation begins in the lower back, then the upper back, then the chest and finally the abdomen. In this type of the breathing, which is best learnt from a seated or normal standing position, the inhalation up the back starting from the tailbone up the spine is quite subtle, so it appears that the chest is being inflated first and the abdomen second. Similarly, on exhalation up the back starting from the tailbone up the spine is quite subtle so it appears that the chest is being compressed first and the abdomen draws inwards second. In the final part of the video Simon holds his breath out and performs an expansive uddiyana bandha, which is an expansion of the chest and upper back like an attempt at inhaling into the chest with a relaxed abdomen but without actually inhaling. This is followed by an isolation of the rectus abdominis (nauli).


This type of circular breathing around the spine has many benefits. Inhalation up the back of the body tractions the spine and brings blood to to inter-vertebral joints. Inhalation down the front of the body (i.e. breathing into the chest first) relieves prolapse of the internal organs, which can help to remove pressure of the intestines, reproductive organs and the bladder, as well as improve venous blood to the heart. Exhalation up the back of the body can help to remove stale blood from the spinal veina (which have no one-way back flow valves like the veins in the limbs have) and strengthen the multifidus muscles that are so important to healthy spinal function. Exhalation down the front of the body helps to massage the internal organs as well as helps to slow the heart rate and calm the nervous system

Simply breathing into the chest has many benefits including relieving prolapse of the internal organs of the lower trunk, allowing the lungs to become fully inflated and also freeing the joints of the ribs, the upper back and the neck. However, most people tend to only get minimal benefits from breathing into the chest because they do it by first inhibiting the diaphragm by tensing the muscles of forced abdominal exhalation or the the anal constrictor muscles.
Exhaling using first upper transverse abdominis then lower abdominis fibres, as shown in the video, can also be very good for massaging the internal organs, mobilising the lumbar vertebrae to relieve lower back pain, and also assist in the secretion of hormones from the endocrine glands. Most people, however, cannot isolate the upper and lower fibres of the transverse abdomens without also activating the oblique muscles of  the abdomen that inhibit diaphragmatic function; the correct functioning of the reproductive system, immune system and digestive system; as well as the natural mobility of the lumbar spine.
For most people the circular breathing is too hard to perform even in standing or sitting, let alone when you are upside down. For many people attempts at chest breathing can lead to negative results, including symptoms of stress and hyperventilation, unless they can expand the chest without any muscular tension in the abdomen. Similarly, many people who exhale from the abdomen will only succeed at constricting the lower abdomen to immobilse the lumbar spine, restrict blood flow to the legs and unnecessarily increase heart rate, while subsequently inhibiting the diaphragm. Hence most people will get better results in their physical practice by working with natural breathing in which the inhalation is abdominal (diaphragmatic), the exhalation is passive, and the amount of breathing is minimal.
The following diagrams come from the text book by Simon Borg-Olivier and Bianca Machliss on the Applied Anatomy and Physiology of Yoga. They describe simple supine and seated versions of the abdominal (diaphragmatic) breathing, chest (thoracic) breathing, and complete breathing (abdominal then chest breathing). These are all necessary prerequisites to being able to breathe as shown in the video standing or sitting normally (let alone doing it upside down, which is much more advanced). To inhale into the lower back simply round out the lower back, relax that region and think of it while breathing into that part. To inhale into the upper back simply round out the upper back, relax that region and think of it while breathing into that part. Generally, to inhale into any part of the body simply expand or lengthen that region, relax that region and think of it while breathing into that region of the body. Likewise, to exhale from the lower back make a ‘valley’ in the lower back (without shortening the spine), gently activate the muscles in that region if necessary and think of it while exhaling slowly and gently from that part. To exhale from the upper back simply make a ‘valley’ in the upper back, gently activate the muscles in that region if necessary, and think of it while exhaling from slowly and gently from that part. Generally, to breathe out from any part of the body simply contract that region inwards without shortening joint spaces, gently activate the muscles in that region if necessary, and think of it while exhaling slowly and gently from that region of the body.
However, once natural breathing has been mastered in simple postures and also in simple movements that move the spine, then it can be really beneficial for the advanced practitioner to progress to the type of breathing shown in the video.
Abdominal (diaphragmatic) breathing

Abdominal (diaphragmatic) breathing (please click on this photo to enlarge the text)

Chest (thoracic) breathing

Chest (thoracic) breathing (Please click on this photo to enlarge the text)

Complete breathing (abdominal breathing following by chest breathing

Complete breathing (abdominal breathing following by chest breathing) (Please click on this photo to enlarge the text)


Inhalation around the spine (inhaling up the  back form lower back to upper back and then continuing to inhale into the chest then the abdomen) like have shown in the video has many benefits as discussed above. However, to the untrained eye it looks like I am breathing first into the chest because, although breathing in the back can be easily felt, it can not be easily seen.  It also appears that as I inhale the navel is being drawn towards the spine, especially when the chest expands and at least in part because the chest expands. Additionally, at the end of the exhalation the navel again moves towards the spine using the transverses abdominis, which does not inhibit the diaphragm and does not immobilise spinal movement. There are in fact four different ways to “pull your navel to your spine”. These four distinct ways and their effects (especially on the diaphragm and the spine) are:

Method 1: By using (activating) the muscles of forced ‘hard’ abdominal exhalation (ha-mula bandha); including co-activation of the internal and external abdominal obliques – this hardens the abdomen but prevents the diaphragm from working in a calm way.

Method 2: By using (activating) the trunk muscles involved in active spinal movements (tha-mula bandha); including rectus abdominis – this hardens the abdomen but still allows diaphragmatic breathing.

Method 3: By using (activating) the transverse abdominis (the muscles of ‘soft’ abdominal exhalation)(ha-mula bandha) – this keeps the abdomen feeling relaxed but allows you to exhale fully from the abdomen and still be able to breath diaphragmatically.  However, only about one in ten adults can do this without special training .

Method 4: By using (activating) the muscles of chest inhalation (tha-uddiyana bandha) with or without inhalation – this does not use any abdominal muscles, therefore the abdomen remains relaxed and the diaphragm can still function.

These methods of drawing the navel towards the spine can also be blended. Many people use a combination of several methods to ‘draw the navel towards the spine’. Drawing the navel towards to spine, and the reasons why it is so easily misunderstood is further explained in this video in an earlier blog.

The breathing I demonstrate in the video uses Methods 3 and 4 to draw the navel to the spine on inhalation. I use Method 4 to inhale into the chest.  Then I use Method 3 (transverses abdominis) to exhale from the abdomen. Clinical studies using Real Time Ultrasound (RTU) suggest that most people  cannot use Method 3 (transversus abdominis) alone to softly draw the navel to the spine to exhale fully. Most people use Method 1 (the abdominal oblique muscles) at least in part, to draw the navel towards the spine both during inhalation and on exhalation. However this usually inhibits the diaphragm and immobilises the spine. Hence the inhalation to the chest is done by default and does not result in a complete inhalation, and the exhalation to the abdomen complicates this further by restricting circulation, increasing heart beat, increasing sympathetic tone (i.e. enhancing the ‘flight or fight’ response) and often resulting in hyperventilation and its associated complications.



If you wish to learn more, please read more of our article in our blog at and download our free 108 page E-book on how to enhance you health and longevity available from the top of all Yoga Synergy web pages. Yoga Synergy also runs regular teaching training courses with Simon Borg-Olivier and/or Bianca Machliss in Australia, India and elsewhere around the world (please see We also run comprehensive and award winning online courses that are described below. These courses are great for anyone interested in yoga, exercise or health, but they are also beneficial for anyone who wants to partake in an ongoing yoga teacher training.
This is a ‘must do’ course for anyone who wants to practice/teach safe and effective yoga. You will learn how to use 9 main joint complexes, 20 muscle group pairs, muscles, 3 main nerve reflexes, 10 circulatory pumps (mudra systems), 18 muscle stabilising coactivations (bandhas), 9 nerve tensioning postures (mudras) and 8 main breath-control exercises (pranayamas).
“It is very important, but not enough, to know where your muscles and bones are … You have to know what to do with them!”
This course is the public version of the award winning RMIT university course written and presented by physiotherapists and yoga teachers Simon Borg-Olivier and Bianca Machliss. It is the culmination of the 30 years of teaching experience and the practical application of the ‘Yoga Anatomy and Physiology’ course.
Each course is 120 hours fully online and is CEP points credited.


Mallakhamb: What I learnt from Practicing Yoga Postures on Poles and Ropes in India

by Simon Borg-Olivier

Simon Borg-Olivier practicing Vrshikasana on a short fixed pole Mallakhamb in Pune, India, 1988

Simon Borg-Olivier practicing Vrshikasana on a short fixed pole Mallakhamb in Pune, India, 1988;

Many people in Australia and around the world are now practicing postures and movements, similar to those seen in hatha yoga, on poles in ‘Pole dance’ studios and on hanging circus silks and rope inversion swings. I was fortunate enough to learn how to do yoga on poles and ropes two decades ago in India in the traditional Indian training system called Mallakhamb.
Lessons I learnt from practicing yoga postures on poles and ropes in India:
1. Move your spine actively from your core.
2. Use your inner thigh muscles more in your ground based exercise.
3. Use the muscles at the back of your knees more in your ground based exercise.
4. Learn to move slowly when it is easy to go quickly into a posture and learn to move fast when it is easy to go slowly.
5. Do not be dependant on the external force of gravity to move your body into positions
6. Strengthen your back muscles by practicing bending backwards using your back muscles.
7. Release and relax your back muscles by using your bending forward muscles and breathing into your abdomen


Mallakhamb is a traditional Indian sport in which the practitioner practices yoga-like postures and movements on a vertical wooden pole or a rope. The name Mallakhamb is derived from the terms malla which means a wrestler and khamb which means a pole. Mallakhamb can therefore be translated to English as “the wrestler’s pole”.

I was inspired to write this blog after the amazing experiences I had learning with the wonderful teachers and students of the ‘Maharashtra Mandel’ in Tilak Road, Pune, India. I had the honour of training with these guys every afternoon on all the 8 x one month long trips I had in Pune to study with Sri BKS Iyengar from 1986 to 1997. I would usually do practice or class with Guruji (Mr Iyengar) or his amazing son Prashant ji or brilliant daughter Geeta ji in the morning and then practice pole or rope Mallakhamb in the afternoon.
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Kundalini, Chakras, Prana and Two Real Intertwining Snakes

Figure 1: (a) Top: Chakras and how to activate them; 
Bottom Left: (b) Intertwining snake snakes in my house; 
Bottom Right: (c) Nadis and cakras from
(Please click on the photo to get full enlarged version)

by Simon Borg-Olivier

In this blog I want to discuss some points about Kundalini energy and Chakras. Much of the information available on the subject of Kundalini is esoteric and so not easy to justify with rational conventional science. I think the best explanation of the science of kundalini comes from Jana Dixon and her excellent book ‘The Biology of Kundalini”. The main purpose of this blog is to elucidate a few simple points that relate to the physical locations of the chakras and how controlling these can help you to improve the health of your spine, your internal organs and your circulation.

In Figure 1b and the in the attached video below are two beautiful 3 metre pythons that live in our house (mostly in the roof). My herpetologist mentor Professor Rick Shine says that they are either making love or wrestling for dominance for mating. Actually seeing them do this is very rare and special and so reminds me of many amazing things including the double stranded helix of the DNA molecule that holds the blueprints of our genetics. They also remind me of the mystery of kundalini, the coiled serpent-like energy lying mostly dormant at the base of our spines.

The inter-coiling of two snakes is such a common symbol in our mythology that is represented most obviously in the Caduceus, which is the staff carried by Hermes in Greek mythology. One myth suggests that Hermes saw two serpents entwined in mortal combat. He separated them with a wand and thus brought about peace between them. As a result the wand with two serpents came to be seen as a sign of love and peace. This is related to the seemingly combatant sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems coiling up the spinal cord. Mostly the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems are seen to have opposing functions, the sympathetic is for ‘flight, fight or freeze’ while the parasympathetic is for ‘relaxation, recovery and rejuvenation’. In many situations one will dominate and subdue the other, but in some situations such as in heightened sexual arousal both sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems work together in harmony to hopefully create love and peace.

In hatha yoga the two spiralling snakes are referred to as the nadis (subtle channels) Ida and Pingala and the spinal cord contains the sushumna nadi. When viewed from above the head the spiralling of these channels looks like the yin yang symbol or even the ancient swastika symbol . The places where the snake-like spiral nadis crossover up the trunk is the supposed location of the main chakras (energy centres) of the body. Each of these main chakras corresponds to and seemingly has relationships with main endocrine glands and also major nerve plexi. The ‘opening’ or ‘unlocking’ of, and the voluntary control of the chakras is a major aim in hatha yoga and can in fact be the tool that allows yoga and yoga therapy to be effective. In order to heal any part of the body especially the internal organs or body systems the only thing we can actually control is our mind, which can control muscles, which can affect posture movement and breathing.

A common belief in yoga circles is that a key step to allowing the kundalini energy to rise up the spine is to open up or unblock the chakras. The question is …‘What does this mean on a scientific level? In this blog I want to describe prana (energy or life energy) and, what can be thought of as its more subtle form, chitta (information or consciousness), then describe a few key points related to the regions associated with the main spinal chakras and their associated nerves plexi and endocrine glands. These are the points that the mind can focus on while regulating posture, movement and breathing. These points can make any physical yoga practice as well as any physical exercise or therapy safer and more effective to give health and longevity as the main aim and strength, flexibility and endurance as by-products.

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Accessible Spinal Movements for Internal Health, External Energy and a Pain Free Back

Basic Spinal Movements

In this blog I will be examining a sequence of postures done from a simple standing posture that in its simplest form involves moving the trunk and spine into its 8 main ‘pure’ positions. This is one of the most effective and accessible practices for anyone and can give tremendous release of back and other pain as well as significantly increasing energy levels, improving functional core strength, reducing stress and improving the health of your internal organs.

The key to effective spinal movements and core stabilisation is to always be able to breathe into the abdomen using the diaphragm and always initiate each spinal movement from the region of the navel and the ‘navel spine’ (L4-L5). Once you release the muscles of forced abdominal exhalation that many people habitually use to ‘engage their core’ using abdominal breathing or at least the feeling that you can breathe into the abdomen, then the spine is free to move from its base at the ‘navel spine’ (L4-L5) near the sacrum. Once you move your spine using the internal forces (trunk muscles) rather than external forces such as gravity, the use of another limb or momentum, then this will create tremendous core strength. In other words to move the spine you must initiate movement from the core with a sense that the core feels relaxed enough to breathe there. At this point the abdomen may feel quite soft to touch. However, once the movement begins the abdomen begins to firm because it is moving. This is an important key to functional mobile core strength and a pain free back.

Figure 1: The list of main postures in the spinal movements sequence is as follows:
1. ‘Complete spinal lengthening posture’ (Urdhva hasta merudanda 
2. ‘Back spinal lengthening posture’ (Pascima merudanda tadâsana)
3. ‘Front spinal lengthening posture’ (Purva merudanda tadâsana)
4. ‘Side spinal lengthening posture’ (Parsva merudanda tadâsana) (left and right side)
5. ‘Twisted spinal lengthening posture (Parivrtta merudanda tadâsana) (left and right side)

This simple but effective spinal movements sequence forms the basis of the YogaSynergy Fundamentals Sequence as taught in our 120 hour online course

A. Structure of the ‘Spinal Movements Sequence’ (Meru danda tada vinyâsa):

The eight main movements of the spine that are practiced in this sequence (vinyâsa) are actually 4 opposing pairs of movements. These are:

1a. ‘Shortening’ (Spinal compression) (standing with a ‘neutral spine’),

1b. ‘Lengthening’ (Spinal traction) (standing with a straight spine),

2a. ‘Forward bending’ (Spinal flexion) (lengthening the back of the body),

2b. ‘Backward bending’ (Spinal extension) (lengthening the front of the body),

3a, 3b. ‘Sideways bending’ to right and left (Spinal lateral flexion) and

4a, 4b. ‘Twisting’ (Spinal axial rotation) to right and to left side

The purpose of this smooth flowing and dynamic linked sequence of postures (vinyâsa) is to enliven the spine by moving each vertebra.

This sequence acts directly on the spine by guiding it to move with its own volition. The shoulders and hips are used to assist the spine in order to utilise and enhance the connections within the body.

The actual list of main postures in this sequence is as follows:

  1. ‘Complete spinal lengthening posture’ (Urdhva hasta merudanda tadâsana)
  2. ‘Back spinal lengthening posture’ (Pascima merudanda tadâsana)
  3. ‘Front spinal lengthening posture’ (Purva merudanda tadâsana)
  4. ‘Side spinal lengthening posture’ (Parsva merudanda tadâsana) (left and right side)
  5. ‘Twisted spinal lengthening posture (Parivrtta merudanda tadâsana) (left and right side)

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Breathing (Part 1): How to breathe to help your spine, internal organs and energy levels

In this blog I will be discussing the the physical and physiological effects of breathing. There are two main reasons we breathe. The main reason is the physiological reason of getting oxygen into our cells. Perhaps surprisingly to many people the best way to achieve this is to safely breathe as little as possible (hypoventilation) to stimulate the Bohr effect which says significant carbon dioxide must be present for oxygen to be able to enter the cells (see our recent blog). The other reason we breathe could be called physical reason and it includes the effects on joints, muscles, nerves, the mind, emotions, blood floor, digestion, reproduction and immunity. In this blog on breathing (Part 1) I will be focusing on the physical effects of breathing. If you breathe, or use the muscles of breathing in certain ways you can radically improve and/alter strength, flexibility, nerve function, blood flow and internal organ health. Many people inadvertently only focus on this reason for breathing and in their enthusiasm and often lack of knowledge they over-breathe (hyperventilate) and thus miss the primary purpose of breathing. In the next blog on breathing (Part 2) I will be focusing on how to achieve the physiological effects of breathing. The advanced practitioner can control their breath in such a way the both the physical and physiological benefits of breathing are achieved at the same time.

Most people should do only natural breathing (simple breath-control) in posture and during movement:

It is best for most people (until they are very experienced) to practice posture and movement separate to specific breath-control. It is difficult for most people do more than one thing at once while they each still being learnt. What tends to happen when people try to learn posture and breathing at the same time is that either the posture or the breathing is compromised. Compromising the posture lead to damaged muscles, ligaments or joints. compromising breathing could lead to over-tension, over-stress and the problems of over-breathing (hyperventilation). Natural breathing has three fundamental properties
1. inhalation is diaphragmatic (abdominal)
2. exhalation is passive
3. the amount of breathing is minimal

Only very experienced people should practice advanced breath-control exercises in complex posture and during movement:

Simon Borg-Olivier in Parsva parivrtta san calana mudra (Image © Nick Aldridge)

Figure 1: In this photo I am moving my body and in a relatively difficult posture side-lengthening, twisting, backward bending lunging posture while doing a fairly advanced breath-control exercise. It is recommended that unless you are very experienced it is best to do natural breathing while movement. (Photo courtesy Nick Aldridge)

In Figure 1 I am doing advanced spinal breathing during complex movement. I follow a path of inhalation that lasts up to 2 minutes on some breaths and a path of inhalation that last up to 2 minutes for exhalation on other breaths. As I ‘breathe into’ a part of the trunk I simultaneously expand that part, lengthen it, relax it and focus on it as I move it. When I ‘breathe out of’ part of the trunk I simultaneously expand that opposite part of the trunk, lengthen it, relax it and focus on it as I move it. This can create quite complex patterns for the mind to visualise but it also has very heating effect and does wonders to the strength, flexibility and wellbeing of the trunk, spine, internal organs and energy levels. In the simplest physical version of this exercise I twist my body to the left side while spiralling my breath around the trunk lengthening first the back f the body, then right side, then the front and then then left side, then I repeat a similar breathing starting from the opposite side in the opposite direction. Before you attempt this it is best to practice long slow breathing in a seated posture (see Part 2 of this blog to come soon), and separately practice the movements with natural breathing.

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